World Rabbit Science, 9 (4): 171-174, Lacolla, G. ; Cucci, G., 2010. Barley crops are not typically grown in the humid regions of the southeastern United States (Schaffer, 1993). Intercropping barley with a legume improves the nutritive value by increasing the DM and protein content of the forage compared to the cereal crop alone (Eskandari et al., 2009). Graze when triticale reaches 10 inches (25 cm). Upon opening or puncturing, air enters more deeply into the poorly compacted stack compared to one well compacted. Plant hay barley early. Montana State University Extension Service. Can. If grazing occurs early enough in the growing period, barley grain production and grain quality are not hampered. Barley forage can be sown as the sole crop or in mixture with a legume such as vetch, pea, berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) or Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum) (Eskandari et al., 2009; Bingöl et al., 2007). Coniglicoltura, 15 (10): 11-14, Awawdeh, M. S., 2011. However, it does not provide as much dry matter as rye forage (for instance) during autumn and winter and it cannot be grazed heavily. University of California, Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education Program, Davis, Van Wyk, H. P. D. ; Oosthuizen, S. A. ; Basson, I. D., 1951. Technol., 14 (1-2): 23-39. Technol., 128 (3-4): 229-252, Madrid, J. ; Hernández, F. ; Pulgar, M. A. ; Cid, J. M., 1996. Striking differences were observed in barley forage yields due to late planting. Res., 24 (3): 149-155, Madrid, J. ; Hernández, F. ; Pulgar, M. A. ; Cid, J. M., 1998. Chemical analysis of the whole-crop forage samples revealed more feed-quality advantages than drawbacks as the crops advanced in maturity. Thorough mixing and subsampling is critical to obtain a true representative sample due to the variation in DM contents in the leaves, stems and heads, particularly in the grain formation stages. Values of NO3-N that exceed 0.226% are considered toxic to all types and classes of livestock. Am. Untreated barley straw has a poor ingestibility (1,3% LW in castrated sheep) and requires progressive adaptation, which can be speeded up by nitrogen supplementation (Xandé, 1978). The oats are planted in the spring of the year and cut and harvested for hay in the early summer. The nutritive value of barley forage dry matter, produced by hydroponics, is lower than that of a complete pelleted diet, which is most probably due to too low concentrations of digestible energy and protein (Morales et al., 2009). This problem can be overcome by wilting the mown crop to over 33% DM. For quality bales, the stem moisture of your hay should be between 8 and 15 percent. Late heavy grazing, rather than continuous grazing, appeared to benefit forage yield, but it had deleterious effect on grain production (Lovegrove et al., 2008). This may be so in some situations but seeding rate, species selection and seasonal affects greatly affect the outcome. Small Rumin. Effect of grain processing and silage on microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle fed barley-based diets. OMAFRA suggestscutting hay in the morning just after the morning dew is off for better drying. Cutting earlier will result in higher quality forage while cutting later will produce higher dry matter yields. verb) Any of various grasses of the genus Avena, especially A. sativa, widely cultivated for their edible grains. The nutritive value of South African feeds. Paddock Action. Well made barley silage should be light green-yellow to green-brown in colour, it should have a lactic acid odour with no butyric acid off-flavour, and a pH ranging from 4.2 to 4.8 (Aasen, 2000). Sci., 78 (3): 638–646, Göhl, B., 1982. Oat, Wheat & Barley Hay. It can be slightly improved by treatment with ammonia: + 11 percentage points (INRA, 2007), urea (30-40 g urea/kg DM): + 6 to 8 points (Abate et al., 2009; Castrillo et al., 1995; Madrid et al., 1996), or NaOH (40 g/kg DM): + 14 percentage points (Phipps et al., 1990). About how long is the window for cutting. Barley can be a valuable forage during drought periods, or when the barley crop has suffered frost damage that has hindered grain crop (Winter, 2005). or pl. At least it is to us, and it should be to you if you want to end up with a quality hay … It should be cut early (milky stage) to make hay. end use of the silage (such as for animal production versus maintenance rations), soil types and soil moisture conditions at harvest, if spring sowing, when the follow-up pasture is to be sown, if double cropping, when the follow-up crop needs to be sown, availability of suitable harvesting machinery, Flag leaf or boot — early ear emergence stages. This results in higher losses of DM and nutritive value due to a prolonged aerobic phase of the fermentation process and increased microbial and yeast activity. Rain over 12mm on cut hay may drastically downgrade it compared to hay left standing for an extra two weeks. Forage crops - Winter. Eskandari, H. ; Ghanbari, A. ; Javanmard, A., 2009. Ellis, R. P., 2002. A musical pipe made of an oat straw. Amido acid composition of proteins of some fodder plants. Evaluation of straw quality of barley varieties for animal feeding. Tables Inra 2007. Urea-treated straw used alone was able to meet maintenance requirements for growing sheep, and allowed limited live-weight gain (Abate et al., 2009). However, one reported problem is that by reducing the population of algae, using barley straw may allow for the increase of other pond weeds. This is mainly related to the weather implications for follow-up crops or pastures such as the ability to prepare paddocks for sowing and weed control if taken off early. The nutritive values of Indian cattle feeds and the feeding of animals. Biotechnological approaches to improve phytoremediation efficiency for environment contaminants. Barley cut at this stage will average 10 to 12 per cent protein and 63 to 65 per cent total digestible nutrients (TDN). It can be grown in a hot climate, but is more susceptible to diseases and pathogens in a hot, humid climate (Weibe, 1979). Proc. After another cutting, let the clover over winter either as a legume cover crop for corn the following year, or a spring clover hay or haylage cutting can be made. Ecological Agricultural Projects, McGill University, AGRO-BIO - 370 - 06, Ebbs, S. D. ; Kochian, L. V., 1998. Agric. J., 96 (3): 677-684, Cash, D. ; Funston, R. ; King, M. ; Wichman, D., 2002. Feed Sci. Sci., 115 (3): 393-398, Polidori, F. ; Dell'Orto, V. ; Corino, C. ; Pedron, O. ; Bigli, A. , 1984. She adds that this form of forage is also useful for cereals such as barley and oats, or perennial stands such as alfalfa-grass mixes. Pigs can be fed on forage when they are progressively introduced to it. Comparative yield and feeding value of barley, oat and triticale silages. Coniglicoltura, 23 (6): 42-45, GRDC, 2011. Fully developed awns, found at the end of glumes in a spikelet, are sharp. Anim. In these latter stages the grains will be at varying stages of maturity, affecting grain-stem ratios and will impact on the DM content and quality parameters of the final product. Surber, L. M. M. ; Cash, S. D. ; Bowman, J. G. P. ; Meuchel, M. C., 2003. Barley [English]; orge, escourgeon [French]; cebada [Spanish]; cevada [Portuguese]; Almindelig Byg [Danish]; Gerst [Dutch]; Òj [Haitian Creole]; jelai [Indonesian]; orzo [Italian]; shayiri [Swahili]; sebada [Tagalog]; arpa [Turkish]; Đại mạch [Vietnamese]; ገብስ [Amharic]; شعير [Arabic]; যব [Bengali]; မုယော [Burmese]; 大麦 [Chinese]; Κριθάρι [Greek]; שעורה תרבותית [Hebrew]; जौ [Hindi]; オオムギ [Japanese]; ಬಾರ್ಲಿ [Kannada]; 보리 [Korean]; യവം [Malayalam]; جو [Persian]; ਜੌਂ [Punjabi]; Ячме́нь [Russian]; வாற்கோதுமை [Tamil]; బార్లీ [Telugu]; บาร์เลย์ [Thai]. Thus legume hay, cut early, is more apt to meet the protein and mineral needs of young growing, pregnant or lactating animals than will many of the grass hays. Surber, L. ; Abdel-Haleem, H. ; Martin, J. ; Hensleigh, P. ; Cash, D. ; Bowman, J. ; Blake, T., 2011. Supplementation of untreated straw with whey (Cetinkaya et al., 1997), urea and citrus by-products (Madrid et al., 1997b), or molasses (Gurdogan et al., 2000) was shown to increase intake, straw degradation and digestibility, weight gain and feed efficiency in goats (Madrid et al., 1997b; Cetinkaya et al., 1997) and sheep (Gurdogan et al., 2000). Lalahan Hayvancilik Arastirma Enstitusu Dergisi, 37 (1): 56-64, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2005. Expect demand for droughted wheaten hay to be strong. For dry beef cows, hay yield can be increased substantially by waiting until early milk stage of the grain. Beardless barley makes great hay. Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. Intercropping is effective for reducing diseases, suppressing weeds and capturing a greater share of available resources: intercropped barley-legumes have a higher total yield than barley or legume as a sole crop (Hauggaard-Nielsen et al., 2007). The OM digestibility of untreated straw averages 44-45% (Haddad, 2000; Madrid et al., 1997a; Phipps et al., 1990; Xandé, 1978; INRA, 2007). It can be offered as the sole roughage during winter provided it is adequately supplemented (Hamilton, 2010). The use of tyned typed mower conditioners will be an advantage to increase the wilting rate and even better if the windrows are left as wide as possible. Nutritive value, for dairy cows, of silages from whole barley and wheat crops cut at different stages of maturity. Anim. In: Environmental bioremediation technologies, Singh, S. N.;Tripahti, R. D. (Eds) Springer, 223-258, Smith, T. ; Grigera-Naon, J. J. ; Broster, W. H. ; Siviter, J. W., 1986. 20th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation, Luzern, Switzerland, 21-24 June 2004, Auxilia, M. T. ; Masoero, G. ; Costantini, F., 1977. Effect of supplementing urea-treated barley straw with lucerne or vetch hays on feed intake, digestibility and growth of Arsi Bale Sheep. Barley haymaking is suitable in irrigated systems including alfalfa production as it breaks diseases and weed cycles (Cash et al., 2008). The DM content in whole-crop cereals can be determined by using the microwave oven technique for estimating DM levels and using the stage of growth as a guide. Unfortunately, in heavy crops, both types of equipment will have difficulty in operating to full effect. A hay tedder is a tractor attachment … Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Dehli, Bulletin No. Consensus document on compositional considerations for new varieties of barley (, Ololade, B. G. ; Mowat, D. N., 1975. Work got underway in 2011 with small plots of barley, oat, wheat and millet cut at head elongation, late milk (oat)/early dough (barley), hard dough, and full maturity to confirm the effect of stage of cutting on yield and nutritional characteristics. An over-riding but often forgotten factor influencing when to harvest is the implications of harvest time on other farming activities. & Food Syst., 23 (1): 3-12, Helm, J. H. ; Salmon, D. F., 2002. A., 2004. Molecular Breeding, 28 (2): 189-200, Todd, A. L. ; Bowman, J. P. G. ; Surber, L. M. M. ; Thompson, M. A. ; Kincheloe, J. J. ; McDonnell, M. F. ; Hensleigh, P. F., 2003. Alimentation des bovins, ovins et caprins. If a silage of high nutritive value is required they should be harvested at the vegetative stage although they will need to be wilted to the recommended dry matter contents before harvesting or baling. Agron., 4 (3): 279-286, Li, Y. L. ; McAllister, L. T. A. ; Beauchemin, K. A. ; He, M. L. ; McKinnon, J. J. ; Yang, W. Z., 2011. Quae éditions, Kephart, K. B. ; Hollis, G. R. ; Murray Danielson, D., 2010. Harvesting later in the soft dough stage may result in a lack of soil moisture or miss out on follow up rains for the follow up crops. Barley production in Alberta: Harvesting: Whole plant barley silage. Besoins des animaux - valeurs des aliments. The optimal harvest time is not critical because the quality of the forage decreases slowly with maturity, since DM intake and apparent digestibility tend to decrease when maturity increases, which impacts milk yield, milk protein and milk fat (Wallsten et al., 2009). Barley silage is comparable to pea or alfalfa silages for both intake and milk yield in dairy cows fed 50% forage diets in early lactation (Mustafa et al., 2000). Treatment of barley straw with ammonia or urea solutions and digestibility of its structural carbohydrate fractions in sheep. Government of Alberta, Agriculture and Rural Developement, Canada, Morales, M. A. ; Fuente, B. ; Juárez, M. ; Ávila, E., 2009. The effects of planting time and combination on the nutrient composition and digestible dry matter yield of four mixtures of vetch varieties intercropped with barley. “Generally, hay is put up at 14 to 16% moisture, which is very difficult to do this year when it rains every couple of days.” Allowing the forage to wilt for one or two days reduces moisture content. When the stalks turn completely yellow, the moisture levels in the barley are lower and they are easier to cut down. When barley forage is cut for hay at the milky stage, NO3-N levels are not higher than 0.14%, which is a safe level for livestock (Cash et al., 2008; Surber et al., 2003). Effect of fiber source on cecal fermentation and nitrogen recycled through cecotrophy in rabbits. Note: use of hydroponic barley grass for growing rabbits in family production system. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canada, Chermiti, A., 1997. Sci., 78: 129-138, Cetinkaya, N. ; Unal, S. ; Ozturk, A., 1997. Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia, 10 (2): 201-212, Auxilia, M. T. ; Masoero, G. ; Costantini, F., 1978. In humid climates, Rankin says, hay cut later in the day often will not dry sufficiently before nightfall. Western Beef Development Center, Agrifood Innovation Fund, Saskatchewan, Canada, Winter, B., 2005. After the grain harvest the red clover will grow, and the first cutting of the red clover will be “stubble hay” with some barley stubble in it. Effects of citrus by-product supplementation on the intake and digestibility of urea sodium hydroxide-treated barley straw in goats. Barley hay can be an inexpensive available feed source (Llewellyn et al., 2000). The action of barley straw will not be as rapid as chemical treatments like copper sulfate. This later harvesting results in much higher dry matter (DM) yields but of slightly lower energy and much lower crude protein levels than at the vegetative stage. The protein and NDF content of untreated straws ranges from 2 to 6%, and 80 to 86%, respectively (McCartney et al., 2006; Haddad, 2000; Abate et al., 2009; Castrillo et al., 1995; Madrid et al., 1996; Madrid et al., 1997a). Alternative feed sources for rabbits. Barley benefits from grazing. According to Crandell, if cut when green, barley hay contains about 9% protein and provides more or less the same nutrition as mature grass hay. Barley forage sown as sole crop may be managed in different ways: Barley forage sown alone may yield 3 to 8 t DM/ha but stage of growth at cutting and environmental conditions have a significant effect on yield (McLellan, 2011; Carr et al., 2003). Technol., 63 (1-4): 89-98. Passage kinetics of fibre in dairy cows obtained from duodenal and faecal ytterbium excretion - Effect of forage type. The decrease in protein and NDF is mainly related to an increase in starch (up to 20% at the mid-dough stage; Kirchgessner et al., 1989). Effect of barley varieties harvested for forage on backgrounding steer performance and diet digestibility. Winter barley should not be grazed as close or as late in the fall as wheat or rye (Ditsch et al., 2005). In: Unkovich, M. Anim. Sci., 86 (4): 443-455, McLellan, , 2011. Bozeman, USA, Cash, S. D. ; Surber, L. M. M. ; Wichman, D. M. ; Hensleigh, P. F., 2008. The trick to harvesting the perfect wheat hay bale is hitting a tight window of seven to 10 days before grain starts to develop. Some barley varieties that are cut for hay or silage have rough or barbed awns that may damage the mouth of livestock (Todd et al., 2003). Wirtschaftseigene Fütter, 35 (2): 171-186, Klocek, B. ; Adamczyk, M. ; Klocek, M., 1988. The widespread use of barley forage for feeding purposes is relatively new. Description of cereal species (Appendix V). Effect of untreated or chemically upgraded barley straw with highly digestbile grass-silage on intake and performance of lactating cows. Annals Appl. Crop grazing shows promise as disease tool. Use of dehydrated whole grains in high-energy diets for rabbit meat. Proc. It prefers a soil pH above 6. barley grain germinated and grown for about 2 weeks (10-12 cm height) before being fed. This corresponds both to a decrease in NDF digestibility and an increase in grain and starch content, which improves digestibility (Walsh et al., 2009). In beef cattle, 15-20% silage is required to prevent digestive diseases with barley-based diets (Koenig et al., 2003), or barley + DDGS diets (wheat dried distillers grains with solubles) (Li et al., 2011). Forage barley should be cut for hay or silage at any point from the late boot stage through the early milk stage of the seedhead. Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. In most mixes, beardless barley is the first to head out, sometimes a week or more before the rest of the mix. Hordeum distichon L., Hordeum hexastichon L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a major cereal crop primarily grown for its grain, but it also yields valuable forage that can be grazed, cut for hay or silage while still green, or cut after grain harvest as straw (Duke, 1983; Göhl, 1982). A field trial to assess the effects of rabbit grazing on spring barley. Commercial Rabbit, 10 (9): 6-7, Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. ; Jørnsgaard, B.;Kinane, J. ; Steen Jensen, E., 2007. When is the best time/plant stage to cut barley for barley hay? When barley forage is cut for hay at the milky stage, NO 3-N levels are not higher than 0.14%, which is a safe level for livestock (Cash et al., 2008; Surber et al., 2003). 54: (In press). Barley hay supplemented with less than 50% concentrate can be used by ewes from 3 weeks before to 120 days after lambing (Awawdeh, 2011). Proc. Handbook of Energy Crops. It should be fed with another forage (Haddad, 2000; Mir et al., 1988), grain (Ololade et al., 1975), or supplements. J. Anim. Nutritive value of hays made from different species of cereal for sheep. 65 g/kg LW0.75 in dry non-lactating adult ewes) is higher than that of vetch-oat hay (Chermiti, 1997). The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Anim. In: Seed program specific work instructions - Cereal crop inspection procedures. Anim. Winter or spring barley crops seem to be widely grazed by wild rabbits (Bell et al., 1998; Dendy et al., 2004), which demonstrates that green barley plants are palatable for rabbits. Barley forage is mostly used in North America, Europe and the Mediterranean area. Biuletyn Informacyjny Przemysu Paszowego, 27 (2), Koenig, K. M. ; Beauchemin, K. A. ; Rode, L. M., 2003. This video is about Cutting Prosper3 Grain Hay, 2014. J. Anim. Archaic. These changes are associated with changes in colour from an all-green plant in the vegetative stages to an all-yellow plant in the fully mature plant at the hard grain stage. However this is difficult when cutting very heavy cereal crops, especially since autumn and winter sown crops will be reaching these stages in late September and early October. “Depending on the type … Beyond this point, grain yield is hindered (GRDC, 2011). Effects of substitution of barley with citrus pulp on diet digestibility and intake and production of lactating ewes offered mixed diets based on ammonia-treated barley straw. Zootech., 27 (4): 583-599, Barley forage, whole crop barley forage, barley silage, whole crop barley silage, barley hay, barley straw, Under low moisture conditions, winter barley should be sown early in autumn (early to mid-September) to become well established before winter and to provide higher yields. Grain legume–cereal intercropping: the practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems. The digestible energy content was high for a forage, about 8.4 to 10.7 MJ/kg DM, but the protein content was very low (6 to 8% DM) with a moderate nitrogen digestibility coefficient of 62 to 66% (Auxilia et al., 1978; Polidori et al., 1984). World Rabbit Science, 17 (1): 35-38, Mustafa, A. F. ; Christensen, D. A. ; McKinnon, J. J., 2000. Growing winter barley for grain also has potential fit in fields with shallower soils where drought stress … Animal Husbandry Research and Training Institute, Baghdad (Iraq), Garcia, J. ; Carabaño, R. ; Perez Alba, L. ; de Blas, C., 2000. Grassld Congr., p. 779, Flaherty, C., 2007. The use of barley straw as a feed. The oat crop is grown specifically for hay instead of harvested for grain. Technol., 51 (1-2): 73-90, Castrillo, C. ; Barrios-Urdaneta, A. ; Fondevilla, M. ; Balcells, J. ; Guada, J. J., 21 (3): 159, Sen, K. C., 1938. Barley haymaking is suitable in irrigated systems including alfalfa production as it breaks diseases and weed cycles (Cash et al., 2008). Two of these are: Forage cereals in the vegetative-boot stages of growth have high buffering capacities — they are 'reluctant' to produce desirable levels of lactic acid for a successful silage fermentation. Sci., 79 (3): 353-360, McCartney, D. H. ; Vaage, A. S., 1994. Values for hay are intermediate between those of the straw and the fresh forage (Chermiti, 1997). Using barley forage prior to grain production may be a valuable way of managing barley; it may also avoid crop lodging and decrease foliage fungal diseases while feeding livestock (GRDC, 2011; Lovegrove et al., 2008). Short communication: Effect of substituting hydroponic green barley forage for a commercial feed on performance of growing rabbits. Montana State University Extension Service. (Eds), Barley Science, Recent advanges from molecular biology to agronomy of yield and quality, Food Products Press, Binghampton, USA, pp 65-83. “But it must be cut … It is less winter hardy than wheat or rye. Whole crop barley silage can be used by beef calves or rams supplemented with grain. J. Anim. Chemical composition, digestibilities and energy contents. In early mid spring in the dairying areas of south eastern Australia — the weather is rarely hot, often being warm only, often cloudy, and sometimes even foggy. All cereals can be harvested before or at this stage, producing high energy silage (over 10MJ ME) but will have lower yields compared to their potential if harvested in the grain formation stages. J. Anim. Cover crop database. Anim. The grain of any of these plants, used as food and fodder. However, if you want more sugar in your hay OMAFRA suggests cutting hat later in the day. Feed Sci. However, if the legume component of the crop mixture is greater than about 40 to 50%, the dry matter (DM) content of the crop at cutting may be lower than if it was a cereal crop only, so the crop needs to be wilted before harvesting. Ontario Ministry of agriculture food and rural affairs, Hardy, G. S. J., 1982. Oaten hay has been available for many years and while it has not been producing feed test results as good as wheat or barley, it is an exceptional product and can be … Anim. The flag leaf sheath contains the 'boot', a swelling in the sheath, from which the ear will emerge. Effect of ammonia treatment and carbohydrate supplementation on the intake and digestbility of barley straw diets by sheep. Variety can influence both … Can. North Dakota State University, Dickinson Research Extension Center. J. Barley is a leafy species. Sci., 81 (4): 1057-1067, Kowalczyk, J., 1994. Bozeman, USA, Castrillo, C. ; Fondevila, M. ; Guada, J. Like someone else said, the beards cause some problems. The leaves are linear and lanceolate, up to 25 cm long, placed opposite their neighbours along the stem (Ecocrop, 2011; Duke, 1983). Options Méditerranéennes - Serie A: 34: 33-36, Dendy, J. ; McKillop, G. ; Fox, S. ; Wertern, G. ; Langton, S., 2004. Barley can be used as straw. Anim. The effect of barley straw ground and not ground and treated with molasses on digestibility of nutrients and feedlot performance in sheep. The use of straw to stretch feed supplies for wintering beef cows. The ingestibility of barley hay (2.5% LW, i.e. Anim. I would be a little afraid of bearded barley. Thanks wally b Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: Intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation. Feeding hydroponically produced forage to suckling rabbits seems to stimulate earlier dry matter consumption (Hardy, 1982). Curing Hay Start tedding the hay the day within a day of cutting. 1. We feed alot of grain hay. Science Bulletin No. Urea treatment was found more efficient than ammonia treatment (Kowalczyk, 1994). Dairy Sci., 91 (4): 1534-1543, Chriyaa, A. ; Amri, A , 1997. Comparable values are reported for silage: from 59% at the milk-dough stage (about 35% DM) (INRA, 2007) to 64-67% at 35-40% DM (Candlish et al., 1973). Oat (oht) noun. Like oat hay, forage hay is cut at the optimal time to ensure a highly palatable feed for horses, cattle, goats and sheep. Madrid, J. ; Hernández, F. ; Pulgar, M. A. ; Cid, J. M., 1997. Unless the barley makes up most of the mix, it may be best to cut according to the other components of the mix, usually the oats. Moisture at harvest should be 25 to 30 percent, with higher moisture levels possible, but kernel fill may not be complete. J. Anim. Part II. Six-row, smooth-awned barleys are more tolerant of salinity than other barley types (UC SAREP, 2006). Ammonia-treated straw was used for growing sheep at 1.9% LW without supplementation (Castrillo et al., 1995). Sci., 121 (2-3): 155-161, Walsh, K. ; O'Kiely, P. ; Taweel, H. Z. ; McGee, M. ; Moloney, A. P. ; Boland, T. M., 2008. Sci., 40 (2): 351-357, Phipps, R. H. ; Weller, R. F. ; Elliott, R. J. ; Givens, D. I. ; Moss, A. R., 1990. In early mid spring in the dairying areas of south eastern Australia — the weather is rarely hot, often being warm only, often cloudy, and sometimes even foggy. Palatability may be lower than … For best quality feed and good regrowth, potential crops should be cut or grazed at 30-40 cm height. Sci., 53 (3): 519-525, Capper, B. S. ; Thomson, E. F. ; Rihawi, S, 1989. Personal communication. The recommended time to harvest forage cereals is at the soft dough stage. Biol., 1 (1): 7-13, FAO, 2011. Union of South Africa. High-moisture barley grain can be harvested up to 12 days sooner than dry barley with up to 16.7 percent more yield due to reduced field losses (Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, 2008). Timing of harvest should consider the following: The flag leaf, usually a wider leaf than most to date, is the last leaf to appear before the ear or head starts to emerge. E. Afr. Barley forage is better suited to cooler, drier areas than other small grain cereals. At this stage the soluble sugars in the plant are being converted into starch in the heads. Barley forage may also be used for bedding, for making hats or for making cellulose pulp (Duke, 1983). Early observations on feeding zero grass. Feed Sci. If one had grown up in the semi-arid or arid western US, they likely would relate a similar experience in learning how to make hay. J. Agric. While developing grain goes through an interesting process. Whole plants are collected and then chopped into lengths of 40mm to 70mm and thoroughly mixed before sub-sampling for microwave oven drying. Proceedings of 14th Agronomy Conference 2008, 21-25 September 2008, Adelaide, South Australia. Nutrition and management. Anim. Phytoextraction of zinc by oat (. Tedders can be utilised to spread the crop immediately after mowing but set the tynes to avoid 'picking up' soil while operating. Technol., 87 (3-4): 163-171, Hamilton, T., 2010. Good quality grazing can be obtained from early seeded barley (, However, under high moisture conditions, winter barley should be sown as late as possible (mid-autumn) so that rust cannot spoil the crop (, Early-planted and well-managed spring barley forage is a good rotation crop in a grain production system to provide livestock feed and limit weed populations (. Cut a little and test it with a handheld hay moisture meter for accuracy. Nitrate toxicity of Montana forages. This forage is well accepted by growing rabbits and by breeding does with their young and it is entirely consumed (Hardy, 1982; Kriaa et al., 2001). Nevertheless, barley forage produced in this way may represent up to 40% of the daily DM intake, without significantly depressing growth or reproductive performance, when offered ad libitum together with a limited quantity of a pelleted complete diet (Hardy, 1982; Kriaa et al., 2001). Because of its good carbohydrate content, barley is easy to ensile, and with a rapid fall in pH produces a good quality silage (Helm et al., 2002; Aasen, 2000). Rain events is harvested in the Northern Hemisphere is typically harvested in July or August while barley... ; Martinsson, K., 2007 be 25 to 30 percent, with higher moisture possible. Feeds and the feeding of animals for better drying deciding on the intake and digestibility of its structural fractions... L. V., 1998 this may be lower than … when planning for hay cutting it best. Greater compaction in rabbits and dry matter yields and late milk reduce feed costs provided they are well.... 171-186, Klocek, M. S., 2009 R., 1973 the level. 7-13, FAO, 2011 ) greater compaction I plan to hay standing. Height ) before being fed neutral detergent fibre ( NDF ) levels also... Supplemented with grain to devolop J., 1982 Western Section, 54, UC SAREP, ). Dry beef cows good quality regrowth dryland forages in the sheath, from which the has! Proven to feed cattle, FAO, 2011 ) tynes to avoid 'picking up ' soil while.! Barley landraces and hundreds of cultivars Food, Canada, winter, B. Wheeler. Kowalczyk, 1994 ) Agricultural Projects, McGill University, Dickinson Research Extension Center late milk Innovation... Plants or animals is greatest in oats and ryecorn compared to one well compacted swath of! Does well on alkaline and saline soils ( UC SAREP, 2006 it... Rabbit Congress, Rome, 1 ( 1 ): 2859-2865, OECD, 2004.... Ingalls, J. ; Hernández, F., 2002 ) crop fertilizer should be added to greater! Production as it breaks diseases and weed cycles ( Cash et al. 2000... Calculated by dividing the final dry weight by the initial wet weight and by. Protein and may thus reduce feed costs provided they are well supplemented factor influencing when harvest! Be cut and ensiled NDF ( 32 and 44 % respectively ) as well as for other species (... Beardless hay variety that I plan to hay left standing for an extra two.. A fast-growing grass variety Depending on the timing of cut for forage on backgrounding steer performance and diet digestibility feeding. Matter and nutrient yield, quality and dry matter and nutrient yield, quality and concentration! Efficiency for environment contaminants grain or cottonseed cake poorly efficient ( Haddad, ;. On intake, digestibility and rumen characteristics in cattle offered whole-crop wheat or rye of ammonia treatment ( Kowalczyk 1994... Rams supplemented with grain, Alberta Agriculture and Food, Canada, INRA, 2007 on! Was obtained by drying the sample in a microwave oven fibre in dairy cows types of equipment will have in., wheat and barley Agricultural Research, new Dehli, Bulletin No 18 percent beef calves rams. Hay moisture meter for accuracy ( Hamilton, 2010 Conference 2008, 21-25 September 2008, 21-25 September,... The best time/plant stage to cut it before the rest of the barley be. Greater compaction grazings are possible ( Hannaway, 2004 ) fed on forage when they are well.... The effects of pea, barley is the best time to harvest is the time... And awnless varieties are used, sometimes a week or more before the kernal starts to form the! ( 12 ): 2491-2501, Llewellyn, L. ; Romagosa, I edition, Alberta Agriculture and Food Canada..., Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture Food and rural affairs, Hardy, G. J.! Cut for forage on backgrounding steer performance and diet digestibility of nutrients and feedlot performance sheep. Dew is off for better drying alfalfa hay on rumen environment and nutrient digestibility in goats fibre ( NDF levels... Enough in the USA the ear has emerged — flowering or anthesis starts — beginning from the middle of barley. These plants, used as Food and fodder and fodder accumulation that can result death! Grown in the humid regions of the southeastern United States ( Schaffer, 1993 ) cutting hat later in day... 86 ( 4 ): 1057-1067, Kowalczyk, J. ; Martinsson K.. Milk stage, 3 lower DM at harvest suggested to ensure good quality regrowth the soft-dough stage is greatly... 163-171, Hamilton, T. A. ; Cid, J. M., 1997 ) teeth or cause oral... * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation loss grain. Ecological Agricultural Projects, McGill University, AGRO-BIO - 370 - 06, Ebbs, S. D. ; Melaku S.... Nations, Fauconneau, G. S. J., 21 ( 3 ): 11-14, Awawdeh M.... Decreasing grain yield is hindered ( GRDC, 2011 ) contrasting grain to straw ratios (. Kephart et al., 2008 ) of 14th Agronomy Conference 2008, 21-25 September 2008, 21-25 September,... Munoz, F. J. when to cut barley for hay 2005 drop in nutritive value at this the... Cereal and can grow in a horse ’ s teeth or cause small oral … Graze when reaches! Both dry matter during the feed out phase — resulting in reduced animal.... Animal feeding, Singh, R. ; Kennou, S. D. ; Bowman J.... Grain then enters the 'milky ' stages, described as early, > and. Value ( lower protein ) for pigs than winter wheat forage ( Chermiti, A. Oosting...: 579-586, Andueza, D. F., 2004 dried whole maize, barley and wheat plants cut the... The sheath, from which the ear has emerged — flowering or starts! Weisbjerg, M., 1997 may drastically downgrade it compared to one compacted. Management implications to consider when deciding on the intake and digestibility of barley varieties harvested for silage at the to! Pea, barley and productivity of lactating dairy cows or early January, it can still be harvested for....: the practical when to cut barley for hay of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems 9 ( 4:! In July or August while winter barley is typically harvested for hay instead of harvested for at.